Birders know the importance of birdsong for species identification. In the Ornithological Biography, Audubon frequently describes phonetically the calls and songs of many species, which underscores his extensive field observations. 

Featured here is a selection from the recordings of birds in Part III of The Complete Flock. For full information on each of these watercolors by Audubon, please visit our collection’s website: The audio is courtesy of the Macaulay Library at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York.

Common Loon (Gavia immer), 1863.17.306
Play Common Loon
Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea), 1863.18.39
Play Little Blue Heron
Greater Yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca), 1863.17.308
Play Greater Yellowlegs
Common Tern (Sterna hirundo), 1863.18.33
Play Common Tern
Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularius), 1863.17.310
Play Spotted Sandpiper
American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), 1863.17.311
Play American White Pelican
Long-tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis), 1863.17.312
Play Longtailed Duck
Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), 1863.17.313
Play Bluewinged Teal
Laughing Gull (Leucophaeus atricilla), 1863.17.314
Play Laughing Gull
Red Knot (Calidris canutus), 1863.17.315
Play Red Knot
Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga), 1863.17.316
Play Anhinga
Surf Scooter (Melanitta perspicillata), 1863.17.317
Play Surf Scoter
American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), 1863.17.318
Play American Avocet
Least Tern (Sternula antillarum), 1863.17.319
Play Least Tern
Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla), 1863.17.320
Play Least Sandpiper
Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja), 1863.17.321
Play Roseate Spoonbill
Redhead (Aythya americana), 1863.17.322
Play Redhead
Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger), 1863.17.323
Play Black Skimmer
Bonaparte’s Gull (Chroicocephalus philadelphia), 1863.17.324
Play Bonaparte's Gull
Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola), 1863.17.325
Play Bufflehead
Northern Gannet (Morus bassanus), 1863.17.326
Play Northern Gannet
Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), 1863.17.327
Play Northern Shoveler
Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), 1863.17.328
Play Blacknecked Stilt
Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis), 1863.17.329
Play Yellow Rail
Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus), 1863.17.330
Play Semipalmated Plover
Common Merganser (Mergus merganser), 1863.17.331
Play Common Merganser
Green Heron (Butorides virescens), 1863.17.333
Play Green Heron
Black-bellied Plover (Pluvialis squatarola), 1863.17.334
Play Blackbellied Plover
Short-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus), 1863.17.335
Play Shortbilled Dowitcher
Yellow-crowned Night-Heron (Nyctanassa violacea), 1863.17.336
Play Yellowcrowned Night Heron
American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus), 1863.17.337
Play American Bittern
Dovekie (Alle alle), 1863.17.339
Play Dovekie
European Storm-Petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus), 1863.17.340
Play European Storm Petrel
Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), 1863.17.342
Play Common Goldeneye
Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), 1863.17.343
Play Ruddy Duck
Stilt Sandpiper (Calidris himantopus), 1863.17.344
Play Stilt Sandpiper
American Wigeon (Anas americana), 1863.17.345
Play American Wigeon
Pacific Loon (Gavia pacifica), 1863.17.346
Play Pacific Loon
Gadwall (Anas strepera), 1863.17.348
Play Gadwall
Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis), 1863.17.349
Play Black Rail
Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus), 1863.17.350
Play Mountain Plover
Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa), 1863.17.351
Play Great Gray Owl
White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), 1863.17.352
Play Whitetailed Kite
Chestnut-backed Chickadee (Poecile rufescens), 1863.17.353
Play Chestnutbacked Chickadee
Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea), 1863.17.354
Play Scarlet Tanager
Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus), 1863.17.355
Play Seaside Sparrow
Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), 1863.17.356
Play Northern Harrier
Black-billed Magpie (Pica hudsonia), 1863.17.357
Play Blackbilled Magpie
Pine Grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator), 1863.17.358
Play Pine Grosbeak
Western Kindbird (Tyrannus verticalis), 1863.17.359
Play Western Kingbird
Winter Wren (Troglodytes hiemalis), 1863.17.360
Play Winter Wren
Dusky Grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), 1863.17.361
Play Dusky Grouse
Steller’s Jay (Cyanocitta stelleri), 1863.17.362
Play Steller's Jay
Bohemian Waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus), 1863.17.363
Play Bohemian Waxwing
White-winged Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera), 1863.17.364
Play Whitewinged Crossbill
Lapland Longspur (Calcarius lapponicus), 1863.17.365
Play Lapland Longspur
Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), 1863.17.366
Play Gyrfalcon
Band-tailed Pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata), 1863.17.367
Play Bandtailed Pigeon
Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta), 1863.17.1368
Play Rock Ptarmigan
Sage Thrasher (Oreoscoptes montanus), 1863.17.177
Play Sage Thrasher
American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus), 1863.17.177
Play American Dipper
Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), 1863.17.177
Play Greater Sage Grouse
Swainson’s Hawk (Buteo swainsoni), 1863.17.177
Play Swainson's Hawk
Black-headed Grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus), 1863.17.177
Play Blackheaded Grosbeak
Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus), 1863.17.374
Play Sharpshinned Hawk
Common Redpoll (Acanthis flammea), 1863.17.375
Play Common Redpoll
Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator), 1863.17.376
Play Trumpeter Swan
Limpkin (Aramus guarauna), 1863.17.377
Play Limpkin
Northern Hawk Owl (Surnia ulula), 1863.17.378
Play Northern Hawk Owl
Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus), 1863.17.379
Play Rufous Hummingbird
Boreal Owl (Aegolius funereus), 1863.17.380
Play Boreal Owl
Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens), 1863.17.381
Play Snow Goose
Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), 1863.17.382
Play Sharptailed Grouse
Long-eared Owl (Asio otus), 1863.17.383
Play Longeared Owl
Dickcissel (Spiza americana), 1863.17.384
Play Dickcissel
Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia), 1863.17.385
Play Bank Swallow
Great Egret (Ardea alba), 1863.17.386
Play Great Egret
Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus), 1863.17.387
Play Glossy Ibis
Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor), 1863.17.388
Play Tricolored Blackbird
Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis), 1863.17.389
Play Redcockaded Woodpecker
Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia), 1863.17.390
Play Song Sparrow
Brant (Branta bernicla), 1863.17.391
Play Brant
Harris’s Hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), 1863.17.392
Play Harris's Hawk
Mountain Bluebird (Sialia currucoides), 1863.17.393
Play Mountain Bluebird
Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus), 1863.17.394
Play Eastern Towhee
Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus), 1863.17.396
Play Glaucous Gull
Scarlet Ibis (Eudocimus ruber), 1863.17.397
Play Scarlet Ibis
Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis), 1863.17.398
Play Darkeyed Junco
Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera), 1863.17.399
Play Goldenwinged Warbler
Lesser Goldfinch (Spinus psaltria), 1863.17.400
Play Lesser Goldfinch
Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator), 1863.17.401
Play Redbreasted Merganser
Rhinoceros Auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), 1863.17.402
Play Rhinoceros Auklet
Barrow’s Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica), 1863.17.403
Play Barrows Goldeneye
Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis), 1863.17.404
Play Eared Grebe
Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), 1863.17.405
Play Semipalmated Sandpiper
Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator), 1863.17.406
Play Trumpeter Swan
Black Scoter (Melanitta americana), 1863.17.408
Play Black Scoter
Forster’s Tern (Sterna forsteri), 1863.17.409
Play Forster's Tern
Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica), 1863.17.410
Play Gullbilled Tern
Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus), 1863.17.411
Play Tundra Swan
Brandt’s Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus), 1863.17.412
Play Brandts Cormorant
California Quail (Callipepla californica), 1863.17.413
Play California Quail
Golden-winged Warbler, 1863.17.414
Play Goldenwinged Warbler
Pygmy Nuthatch (Sitta pygmaea), 1863.17.415
Play Pygmy Nuthatch
Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus), 1863.17.416
Play Northern Flicker
Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus), 1863.17.417
Play Hairy Woodpecker
Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta), 1863.17.418
Play Rock Ptarmigan
Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus), 1863.17.419
Play Hermit Thrush
Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), 1863.17.420
Play Redwinged Blackbird
Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis), 1863.17.177
Play Brown Pelican
Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), 1863.17.177
Play Roughlegged Hawk
Crested Bobwhite (Colinus cristatus), 1863.17.177
Play Crested Bobwhite
Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), 1863.17.177
Play Brownheaded Cowbird
Anna’s Hummingbird (Calypte anna), 1863.17.177
Play Anna's Hummingbird
California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus), 1863.17.177
Play California Condor
Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani), 1863.17.177
Play Black Oyster Catcher
Surfbird (Aphriza virgata), 1863.17.177
Play Surfbird
Steller’s Eider (Polysticta stelleri), 1863.17.177
Play Steller's Eider
Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus), 1863.17.177
Play Marbled Murrelet
American Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber), 1863.17.177
Play American Flamingo
Morthern Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium gnoma), 1863.17.177
Play Northern Pygmy Owl
Varied Thrush (Ixoreus naevius), 1863.17.177
Play Varied Thrush
Western Wood-Pewee (Contopus sordidulus), 1863.17.177
Play Western Wood Pewee
American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus), 1863.17.177
Play American Dipper

Featured here is a selection from the 127 recordings of birds in Part II of The Complete Flock. For full information on each of these watercolors by Audubon, please visit our collection’s website: The audio is courtesy of the Macaulay Library at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York.

White-crowned Pigeon (Patagioenas leucocephala), 1863.17.177
Play White-crowned Pigeon
Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), 1863.17.181
Play Golden Eagle
Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa), 1863.17.183
Play Golden-crowned Kinglet
Black-throated Mango (Anthracothorax nigricollis), 1863.17.184
Play Black-throated Mango
Bachman’s Warbler (Vermivora bachmanii), 1863.17.185
Play Bachman's Warbler
Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido), 1863.17.186
Play Greater Prairie-Chicken
Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus), 1863.17.199
Play Northern Saw-whet Owl
Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), 1863.17.200
Play Horned Lark
Wood Duck (Aix sponsa), 1863.17.206
Play Wood Duck
Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias), 1863.17.211
Play Great Blue Heron
Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica), 1863.17.213
Play Atlantic Puffin
Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor), 1863.17.217
Play Tricolored Heron
Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle), 1863.17.219
Play Black Guillemot
White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), 1863.17.222
Play White Ibis
American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus), 1863.17.223
Play 223 American Oystercatcher
Whooping Crane (Grus americana), 1863.17.226
Play Whooping Crane
Northern Pintail (Anas acuta), 1863.17.227
Play Northern Pintail
Greater Scaup (Aythya marila), 1863.17.229
Play Greater Scaup
Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus), 1863.17.231
Play Long-billed Curlew
Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus), 1863.17.232
Play Hooded Merganser
Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), 1863.17.236
Play Black-crowned Night-Heron
Marbled Godwit (Limosa fedoa), 1863.17.238
Play Marbled Godwit
Snowy Egret (Egretta thula), 1863.17.242
Play Snowy Egret
Wilson’s Snipe (Gallinago delicata), 1863.17.243
Play 243-Wilson's-Snipe.mp3
Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), 1863.17.246
Play Common Eider
Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis), 1863.17.251
Play Brown Pelican
Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), 1863.17.252
Play Double-crested Cormorant
Reddish Egret (Egretta rufescens), 1863.17.256
Play Reddish Egret
Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), 1863.17.260
Play Leach's Storm-Petrel
Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis), 1863.17.261
Play Sandhill Crane
American Woodcock (Scolopax minor), 1863.17.268
Play American Woodcock
Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnificens), 1863.17.271
Play Magnificent Frigatebird
Herring Gull (Larus argentatus), 1863.17.291
Play Herring Gull

Featured here is a selection from the 175 recordings of birds in Part I of The Complete Flock. For full information on each of these watercolors by Audubon, please visit our collection’s website: The audio is courtesy of the Macaulay Library at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York.

Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), 1863.17.31
Play Bald Eagle
Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula), 1863.17.12
Play Baltimore Oriole
Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) Yellow-shafted, 1863.17.37
Play Northern Flicker
Barred Owl (Strix varia), 1863.17.46
Play Barred Owl
Chestnut-sided Warbler (Dendroica pensylvanica), 1863.17.59
Play Chestnut-sided Warbler
White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus), 1863.17.63
Play White-eyed Vireo
Red-Winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), 1863.17.67
Play Red-Winged Blackbird
Henslow’s Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii), 1863.17.70
Play Henslow's Sparrow
Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides forficatus), 1863.17.72
Play Swallow-tailed Kite
Merlin (Falco columbarius), 1863.17.75
Play Merlin
Eastern Whip-poor-will (Caprimulgus vociferus), 1863.17.82
Play Whip-poor-will
Black-throated Magpie-Jay (Calocitta colliei), 1863.17.96
Play Black-throated Magpie-Jay
Marsh Wren (Cistothorus palustris), 1863.17.98
Play Marsh Wren
Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus), 1863.17.111
Play Pileated Woodpecker
Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus), 1863.17.127
Play Rose-breasted Grosbeak
American Robin (Turdus migratorius), 1863.17.131
Play American Robin
Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna), 1863.17.136
Play Eastern Meadowlark
American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), 1863.17.156
Play American Crow
Carolina Chickadee (Poecile carolinensis), 1863.17.160
Play Carolina Chickadee
Crested Caracara (Caracara cheriway), 1863.17.161
Play Crested Caracara
Carolina Parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis), 1863.17.26
Play Carolina Parakeet
Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius), 1863.17.62
Play Passenger Pigeon
Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis), 1863.17.66
Play Ivory-billed Woodpecker

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