Birders know the importance of birdsong for species identification. In the Ornithological Biography, Audubon frequently describes phonetically the calls and songs of many species, which underscores his extensive field observations. 

Featured here is a selection from the recordings of birds in Part III of The Complete Flock. For full information on each of these watercolors by Audubon, please visit our collection’s website: emuseum.nyhistory.org. The audio is courtesy of the Macaulay Library at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York.

Common Loon (Gavia immer), 1863.17.306
Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea), 1863.18.39
Greater Yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca), 1863.17.308
Common Tern (Sterna hirundo), 1863.18.33
Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularius), 1863.17.310
American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), 1863.17.311
Long-tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis), 1863.17.312
Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), 1863.17.313
Laughing Gull (Leucophaeus atricilla), 1863.17.314
Red Knot (Calidris canutus), 1863.17.315
Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga), 1863.17.316
Surf Scooter (Melanitta perspicillata), 1863.17.317
American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), 1863.17.318
Least Tern (Sternula antillarum), 1863.17.319
Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla), 1863.17.320
Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja), 1863.17.321
Redhead (Aythya americana), 1863.17.322
Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger), 1863.17.323
Bonaparte’s Gull (Chroicocephalus philadelphia), 1863.17.324
Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola), 1863.17.325
Northern Gannet (Morus bassanus), 1863.17.326
Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), 1863.17.327
Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), 1863.17.328
Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis), 1863.17.329
Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus), 1863.17.330
Common Merganser (Mergus merganser), 1863.17.331
Green Heron (Butorides virescens), 1863.17.333
Black-bellied Plover (Pluvialis squatarola), 1863.17.334
Short-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus), 1863.17.335
Yellow-crowned Night-Heron (Nyctanassa violacea), 1863.17.336
American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus), 1863.17.337
Dovekie (Alle alle), 1863.17.339
European Storm-Petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus), 1863.17.340
Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), 1863.17.342
Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), 1863.17.343
Stilt Sandpiper (Calidris himantopus), 1863.17.344
American Wigeon (Anas americana), 1863.17.345
Pacific Loon (Gavia pacifica), 1863.17.346
Gadwall (Anas strepera), 1863.17.348
Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis), 1863.17.349
Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus), 1863.17.350
Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa), 1863.17.351
White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), 1863.17.352
Chestnut-backed Chickadee (Poecile rufescens), 1863.17.353
Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea), 1863.17.354
Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus), 1863.17.355
Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), 1863.17.356
Black-billed Magpie (Pica hudsonia), 1863.17.357
Pine Grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator), 1863.17.358
Western Kindbird (Tyrannus verticalis), 1863.17.359
Winter Wren (Troglodytes hiemalis), 1863.17.360
Dusky Grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), 1863.17.361
Steller’s Jay (Cyanocitta stelleri), 1863.17.362
Bohemian Waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus), 1863.17.363
White-winged Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera), 1863.17.364
Lapland Longspur (Calcarius lapponicus), 1863.17.365
Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), 1863.17.366
Band-tailed Pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata), 1863.17.367
Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta), 1863.17.1368
Sage Thrasher (Oreoscoptes montanus), 1863.17.177
American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus), 1863.17.177
Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), 1863.17.177
Swainson’s Hawk (Buteo swainsoni), 1863.17.177
Black-headed Grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus), 1863.17.177
Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus), 1863.17.374
Common Redpoll (Acanthis flammea), 1863.17.375
Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator), 1863.17.376
Limpkin (Aramus guarauna), 1863.17.377
Northern Hawk Owl (Surnia ulula), 1863.17.378
Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus), 1863.17.379
Boreal Owl (Aegolius funereus), 1863.17.380
Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens), 1863.17.381
Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), 1863.17.382
Long-eared Owl (Asio otus), 1863.17.383
Dickcissel (Spiza americana), 1863.17.384
Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia), 1863.17.385
Great Egret (Ardea alba), 1863.17.386
Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus), 1863.17.387
Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor), 1863.17.388
Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis), 1863.17.389
Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia), 1863.17.390
Brant (Branta bernicla), 1863.17.391
Harris’s Hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), 1863.17.392
Mountain Bluebird (Sialia currucoides), 1863.17.393
Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus), 1863.17.394
Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus), 1863.17.396
Scarlet Ibis (Eudocimus ruber), 1863.17.397
Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis), 1863.17.398
Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera), 1863.17.399
Lesser Goldfinch (Spinus psaltria), 1863.17.400
Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator), 1863.17.401
Rhinoceros Auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), 1863.17.402
Barrow’s Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica), 1863.17.403
Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis), 1863.17.404
Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), 1863.17.405
Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator), 1863.17.406
Black Scoter (Melanitta americana), 1863.17.408
Forster’s Tern (Sterna forsteri), 1863.17.409
Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica), 1863.17.410
Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus), 1863.17.411
Brandt’s Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus), 1863.17.412
California Quail (Callipepla californica), 1863.17.413
Golden-winged Warbler, 1863.17.414
Pygmy Nuthatch (Sitta pygmaea), 1863.17.415
Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus), 1863.17.416
Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus), 1863.17.417
Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta), 1863.17.418
Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus), 1863.17.419
Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), 1863.17.420
Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis), 1863.17.177
Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), 1863.17.177
Crested Bobwhite (Colinus cristatus), 1863.17.177
Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), 1863.17.177
Anna’s Hummingbird (Calypte anna), 1863.17.177
California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus), 1863.17.177
Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani), 1863.17.177
Surfbird (Aphriza virgata), 1863.17.177
Steller’s Eider (Polysticta stelleri), 1863.17.177
Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus), 1863.17.177
American Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber), 1863.17.177
Morthern Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium gnoma), 1863.17.177
Varied Thrush (Ixoreus naevius), 1863.17.177
Western Wood-Pewee (Contopus sordidulus), 1863.17.177
American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus), 1863.17.177

Featured here is a selection from the 127 recordings of birds in Part II of The Complete Flock. For full information on each of these watercolors by Audubon, please visit our collection’s website: emuseum.nyhistory.org. The audio is courtesy of the Macaulay Library at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York.

White-crowned Pigeon (Patagioenas leucocephala), 1863.17.177
Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), 1863.17.181
Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa), 1863.17.183
Black-throated Mango (Anthracothorax nigricollis), 1863.17.184
Bachman’s Warbler (Vermivora bachmanii), 1863.17.185
Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido), 1863.17.186
Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus), 1863.17.199
Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), 1863.17.200
Wood Duck (Aix sponsa), 1863.17.206
Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias), 1863.17.211
Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica), 1863.17.213
Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor), 1863.17.217
Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle), 1863.17.219
White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), 1863.17.222
American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus), 1863.17.223
Whooping Crane (Grus americana), 1863.17.226
Northern Pintail (Anas acuta), 1863.17.227
Greater Scaup (Aythya marila), 1863.17.229
Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus), 1863.17.231
Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus), 1863.17.232
Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), 1863.17.236
Marbled Godwit (Limosa fedoa), 1863.17.238
Snowy Egret (Egretta thula), 1863.17.242
Wilson’s Snipe (Gallinago delicata), 1863.17.243
Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), 1863.17.246
Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis), 1863.17.251
Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), 1863.17.252
Reddish Egret (Egretta rufescens), 1863.17.256
Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), 1863.17.260
Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis), 1863.17.261
American Woodcock (Scolopax minor), 1863.17.268
Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnificens), 1863.17.271
Herring Gull (Larus argentatus), 1863.17.291

Featured here is a selection from the 175 recordings of birds in Part I of The Complete Flock. For full information on each of these watercolors by Audubon, please visit our collection’s website: emuseum.nyhistory.org. The audio is courtesy of the Macaulay Library at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York.

Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), 1863.17.31
Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula), 1863.17.12
Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) Yellow-shafted, 1863.17.37
Barred Owl (Strix varia), 1863.17.46
Chestnut-sided Warbler (Dendroica pensylvanica), 1863.17.59
White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus), 1863.17.63
Red-Winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), 1863.17.67
Henslow’s Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii), 1863.17.70
Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides forficatus), 1863.17.72
Merlin (Falco columbarius), 1863.17.75
Eastern Whip-poor-will (Caprimulgus vociferus), 1863.17.82
Black-throated Magpie-Jay (Calocitta colliei), 1863.17.96
Marsh Wren (Cistothorus palustris), 1863.17.98
Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus), 1863.17.111
Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus), 1863.17.127
American Robin (Turdus migratorius), 1863.17.131
Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna), 1863.17.136
American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), 1863.17.156
Carolina Chickadee (Poecile carolinensis), 1863.17.160
Crested Caracara (Caracara cheriway), 1863.17.161
Carolina Parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis), 1863.17.26
Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius), 1863.17.62
Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis), 1863.17.66

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